Postpartum psychosis occurs in 1 to 2 cases per 1000 post-partum women. This includes psychotic and bipolar disease. The impact of puerperal psychosis on the relationship between mother and infant could have long-termadverse effects on both mother and child. Former mental illness is a major risk factor for puerperal psychosis, but the effect of other independent factors, such as birth complications and side effects of drugs and their interactions, it is not clear. Some independent risks can be elucidated as causative factors of puerperal psychosis through the study of mothers that are affected by it, for the first time, in the puerperium. Few reports have addressed this problem. We report, for the first time, a case of acute transient puerperal psychosis.