The aim of this study was to assess the apical seal of root canals with instrument fragment using three obturation techniques for filling; namely, the lateral, the vertical and hybrid condensation.
Forty-two canals of mandibular and maxillary molars were prepared to receive a size 20 instrument's fragment. They were then filed with step back preparation and filled with gutta percha using the fore mentioned techniques. They were coated with nail polish and wax, except the apical foramen area, immersed in India ink for two weeks, decalcified in 4% nitric acid and split for linear dye penetration. It was concluded that apical seal was significantly superior at p <0.05 for both vertical and hybrid condensation techniques in comparison with lateral condensation; palatal and distal canals of maxillary and mandibular molars showed significantly less leakage with both vertical and hybrid techniques than with lateral condensation; for buccal and mesial canals the apical dye penetration was of the same extent for the three obturation techniques used
Sybel Moussa ,
Apical seal for different condensation techniques in cases of fractured root canal instruments,
Alex. Dent. J. 1993;
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