After the discovery of insulin in 1921  , a vast number of studies have been carried out in order to improve methods of management, diagnosis and treatment of complications of diabetes mellitus.
Animal insulin has been used successfully for a long period of time in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Since animal insulin is contaminated with other proteins [proinsulin, glucagon and other polypeptides] , it may induce cellular and immune responses in man  . In addition, these contaminant peptides can act as adjuvants and enhance the immunogenicity of insulin molecules  . Highly purified insulin was introduced as a substitute for the conventional insulin by removal of contaminants to reduce insulin immunogenicity  . the of goal of producing the purest insulin possible has led to methods of synthesizing human insulin  . During the last decade, many innovations have been reported as far as diabetes management and diagnosis are concerned. The goals have been to find comfortable ways to treat people with diabetes. Today people strive for makign the life of diabetic patients as close to normal as possible. Recent advances have allowed the lives of diabetic persons to be more flexible than ever. In the following pages, the most important innovations in diabetes management will be considered
E. S. M. El Denshary ,
Diabetes mellitus: Current studies and hopes for tomorrow,
Saudi Pharm. J. 1993;
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