Nonpharmacological interventions are best regarded as complex interventions, and it is important to understand their mechanism of action more fully and test study methodology before formal evaluation.
These aspects can be achieved through process evaluations, both by undertaking feasibility studies and monitoring trial processes along with outcomes, particularly through the use of qualitative interviews. Many of these interventions can, and often do, help, particularly as a supplement to pharmacological intervention, but they need rigorous evaluation in order to show how to implement them in routine practice. The integration of qualitative data with trial data is not straightforward and is undergoing methodological development. Nevertheless, early work is promising, and it is likely that this approach will be refined and used more widely in the near future
Michael I. Bennett ,S. Jose Closs ,
Methodological issues in nonpharmacological trials for chronic pain,
Anaesth. Pain Intensive Care. 2010;
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